Towards to World War II, unidentified submarines, ships and planes attacked the merchant ships in the
Mediterranean. These attacks, which were the reflection of the Spanish Civil War on the international
arena, were disturbed by all the states that were neighboring the Mediterranean or that had ships in this
sea in May-September 1937. The Nyon Conference, led by Britain and France, was gathered to end
these attacks and the attacks ended immediately after the conference. In this study, the ships that were
attacked by unidentified submarines in the Mediterranean, the debates about the state who performed
these attacks, the Nyon Conference and the status of the Republic of Turkey in this process are discussed.
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