19. Asırda Osmanlı Yönetimi ve Balkanlardaki Bölünmeler Hakkında Bazı Değerlendirmeler

19. Asırda Osmanlı Yönetimi ve Balkanlardaki Bölünmeler Hakkında Bazı Değerlendirmeler

Memet YETİŞGİN

Abstract

The Ottoman administration of minorities which was sometime called “the millet system” had successfully
been applied towards the non-Muslim subjects of the Empire for centuries before it became unsatisfactory
to the non-Muslims in modern times. Growing insufficiency in the “millet system” was mainly
caused by developing western civilization and big state interests. While the growing western civilization
increasingly valued freedom in the line of human rights, equality before the law, individualism, liberty,
and nationalism, the great state interests worked relentlessly to make good use of problems of weak
states in their own political and economic benefits. Both of these inspired and helped minorities to revolt
against the mother country. Being aware of the situation, the Ottomans, in order to gain loyalty of the
minorities, reformed and introduced new political changes including degrees of the Tanzimat and Islahat
and the first Ottoman constitution, Kanun-u Esasi. However, historical perceptions and motivations
of the minorities and weak results of Ottoman reforms failed to stop disintegration of the Balkans. First
autonomies granted to the minorities were enlarged in time, and finally turned to full independences
with the help of the Big Powers. For the newly created states gaining freedom was not enough. They
wanted more lands and more spaces either against each other or usually against the Ottoman Empire.
This paper will focus on the Ottoman way in ruling minorities, disintegration process and causes of
minority uprisings in the Balkans. Relations of minorities to the Ottoman State, Big State politics in
the region and handicaps of the Ottoman rule in the Balkans will be discussed.

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