The Province of Bitlis in the Reports of British Consul James Henry Monahan (1896-1898)

The Province of Bitlis in the Reports of British Consul James Henry Monahan (1896-1898)



The Consulate of the Bitlis Province of Britain was opened at the level of the Vice-Consul attached to the
province of Erzurum in 1895. Charles Seymour Hampson was appointed as the first consul of the province. After Hampson, James Henry Monahan was appointed British Vice-Consul of the province of Bitlis. Monahan took over the responsibility of the Bitlis Consulate in 1896 and held this post until 1898.
During his tenure, James Henry Monahan kept consular books containing important political,
social, economic and cultural information about the province. When these books were examined, it was
seen that some events were emphasized more. The Armenian-Muslim conflict, the looting-attack events,
the conversion of religion events, the tax issue, the economic situation, and the regulations implemented
in the province were the main topics. Consul Monahan obtained this detailed information as a result of
his trips to the Sanjak of Moush and Sairt. The study is based on James Henry Monahan’s trips in the
province and her subsequent reports and correspondence. In our study, the famine in Bitlis province of 1896-1898 and the subsequent migration events, the tax issue, various debt systems applied within the
province, the livelihoods of the people, security problems, the issue of Kurdish guards (bekdji) and the
socio-economic structure of the province were examined in detail.

Keywords: İngiliz Konsolosluğu, James Henry Monahan, Bitlis Vilayeti, Siirt Sancağı, Muş Sancağı

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